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Targeted delivery of the drug to its therapeutically active site with low immunogenicity and system toxicity is critical for optimal tumor therapy. In this paper, exosomes as naturally-derived nano-sized membrane vesicles are engineered by chimeric peptide for plasma membrane and nucleus targeted photosensitizer delivery and synergistic photodynamic therapy (PDT). Importantly, a dual-stage light strategy is adopted for precise PDT by selectively and sequentially destroying the plasma membrane and nucleus of tumor cells. Briefly, plasma membrane-targeted PDT of chimeric peptide engineered exosomes (ChiP-Exo) could directly disrupt the membrane integrity and cause cell death to some extent. More interestingly, the photochemical internalization (PCI) and lysosomal escape triggered by the first-stage light significantly improve the cytosolic delivery of ChiP-Exo, which could enhance its nuclear delivery due to the presence of nuclear localization signals (NLS) peptide. Upon the second-stage light irradiation, the intranuclear ChiP-Exo would activate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in situ to disrupt nuclei for robust and synergistic PDT. Based on exosomes, this dual-stage light guided subcellular dual-targeted PDT strategy exhibits a greatly enhanced therapeutic effect on the inhibition of tumor growth with minimized system toxicity, which also provides a new insight for the development of individualized biomedicine for precise tumor therapy.




stage light


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Stage Lights is a timer that helps keep presenters on time. The light turns from green to yellow to red based on the amount of time left. Set the duration by clicking settings. A timer will count down how much time remains.


There are several types of lighting fixtures that are common in stage lighting design. Each type is designed for a unique purpose, so most stage lighting setups will include multiple types of lanterns. These fixtures may include:


An ellipsoidal reflector spotlight produces an intense, well-defined beam of light that is perfect for front lighting. You can adjust the focus with soft or sharp edges, use shutters to adjust the shape of the lighting and keep the light from bleeding into areas you want to remain dark. These lights can also hold gobos and gels so you can create patterns and colors with them.


These lights are named after their inventor, Augustin Fresnel. What makes these lights unique is that they have a lens made of concentric rings. The light is brightest at the center ring and softens the closer it gets to the edges. These lights are a good choice for washes, though they can also produce more narrow beams of light with a soft edge. You cannot use shutters or patterns on these lights.


Strip lights can also be used as cyc lights, but these lights are wider than most cyc lights. They consist of multiple lamps arranged in a horizontal row. A strip light is what many lighting engineers use to add a large amount of color coverage to a stage. They can also allow you to mix colors. These lights come in both standard and LED varieties.


Texture is another important way lighting designers can directly impact the visuals in a scene. By using gobos with patterns on them, lighting designers can transform the look of a scene. Even in productions where sets are minimal, the right lighting pattern can create the impression that the performers are in a jungle, in the city, outside on a starry night or in a church with a stained glass window.


This plan will start with dividing the stage into areas that require independent lighting control. For productions that use the whole stage for most scenes, the lighting designer will designate general segments that are evenly divided across the stage. The simplest example would be a center segment with a side segment on stage left and stage right.


For productions with more segmented sets and scenes that take place at different parts of the stage, there will be more definitive, natural area designations for the lighting designer to start with. For instance, there may be a spot on the stage where a narrator appears periodically to speak or where a soloist will stand to perform during an orchestra concert. You would want this spot to be its own area.


The way a designer designates areas will entirely depend on the production and the set, so there is no one-size-fits-all approach. Each new production a lighting designer works on must start from the ground up.


After the designer divides the stage by area, they will think about each area in terms of color. Do certain areas need to have their own controllable variations in color? In some cases, you may be able to group adjacent segments on the stage. Or you may need each segment to have its own color controls.


In the early stages of their design, lighting professionals tend to think generally about color in terms of warm, cool and neutral lighting. They can also begin to think more specifically about individual colors if they know their colors will differ decidedly from area to area on the stage.


As an experienced lighting designer and professor of lighting design points out, there is no exact formula for the lighting design process or who collaborates on a production because each production is unique. Lighting designers are the experts when it comes to lighting up a stage, but directors or others working on a production can assist the lighting designer so they can do their absolute best. Follow these tips when working with a stage lighting designer: